On seeing the names like this Yavana, Shaka etc., some hold the view that Ramayana was written more lately to Greek's invasion on India. Max Muller in his 'What Can India Teach Us?' says: 'If I call the invasion which is generally called the invasion of the Shakas, or the Scythians, or the Indo-Scythians, or Turushkas, the Turanian invasion... who took possession of India, from about first century BCE to the third century BCE. Again classifying Sanskrit literature he says, 'we divide the whole of the Sanskrit literature into there two periods, one anterior to the great Turanian invasion, the other posterior to it, we may call the former period as ancient and natural, that of the later modern and artificial.' Thus, Ramayana belonged to the modern and artificial literary period and Veda-s to ancient. According to Indians the Turushkas are not the Scythians but Turkish, and the Yavanas, are clearly the Greek. Michelson in his 'Linguistic Archaisms of the Ramayana...'adds another phase called Epical period. Thus, there are three, Vedic, Epical, and the rest of it is modern and artificial. At the same time Max Muller says: 'At the time of Solomon, there was a channel of communication open between India and Syria and Palestine is established beyond doubt, I believe, by certain Sanskrit words which occur in the Bible such as ivory, apes, peacock, and sandalwood, which, taken together, could not have been exported from any country but India...' So Solomon, Bible, Turanian invasion, and Ramayana... all occasioned at one time, i.e., around 0 BCE So many professors, so many researchers have not said a date agreeable to Indians as well as to the world.

At one place, it is said that there was a rapport among these places India-Syria-Palestine and even up to Egypt, but at other place, the Indian thought, that the Indian had Greeks and Greeks had Indians, is dismissed. What prevents to agree that both hold up mirror to almost the same culture, though diverse in its practice, right from the belief of Greeks, viz., 'the sense of many gods are there near at hand' to various gods, to their names, to the epical literature, and also to myths and legends and dramas etc, is unknown. But when it comes to dating and mapping 'the earliest date known for certain in Indian history is the invasion of Alexander in 326 BCE...' and 'The chronology has been built up form the identification of Sandracrottus of Greek writers with Chandragupta Mauryan... yet it is said 'In the seventh century BCE India was divided into sixteen Maha-janapada-s...' as per 'An Historical Atlas of Indian Peninsula", Oxford. Peculiarly these sixteen Janapada-s did not contain the names of Yavana, Shaka provinces in atlases.

'The Greeks, evidently descended from tribes who had come westwards from the early home of Indo-Europeans in South-Central-Asia, first settled in the land which we know as Greece about 2000 BCE....' according to The Encyclopaedia of Myths and Legends of All Nations, Kaye & Ward Ltd., London. Their history about Ion, the king of Helice, and his war with Elsenians, the confederacy of Lonia in Asia Minor etc., speaks about their origin and shuffling, i.e., from east to west and again from west to east. It is they who have adopted Vedic Rain-god Mitra as their Mithras and many a temple was built all over Europe for Mithras. Even Goddess Lakshmi has her counterpart in Greece 'Pallas Athene' known as early as 2 BCE, and the comedies of Strattis, like Fragmenta Comic of Greece has Indian fables as early as 400 BCE. Hence, if these Theories of Borrowing are negated with the Theories of Commonality, it would suffice to say that Ramayana is antecedent to the settlement of Greeks in Greece itself.

Without lingering on these carbon-testing for the verses of Ramayana that contain Yavana and Shaka named provinces, if the astronomical data available in Ramayana itself is believed, it throws some light on dating. If anybody would care to see the book Vastav Ramayan, by Dr.P.V.Vartak, in Marathi, Vedvidnyana Mandal, Pune, and a web site is available about this, Astronomical Dating of the Ramayana where another approach can be seen, which just does not revolve around one or two names of places. It is said there; 'Therefore, Ramayana 'must have' occurred 9600 years ago, which is 7600 B.C. approximately...' which again is disputable because this is going against the Yuga and Kalpa Theory of Puranas, as Ramayana is said to be the legend of Treta Yuga.

The provinces Shuurasena, Bharata, Kuru are the down lands of Himalayas. The Kaambhoja is the province northwest to India, where the Russia touches India, as mapped by 'An Historical Atlas of the Indian Peninsula' of Oxford University. Then the Yavana and Shaka should be around there, prior to their migration to the presently known Greece, because Greeks originated from so called 'South-Central-Asia' as called by the historians, and perhaps the historians might be hesitating to call it as 'Himalayan region of India'. They were originally called Ionians, a corrupt or generic name from Indian naming of Yavana or Javana. The word Æoni can be cleaved as A + YONI; [AYOGYA] YONIM GATA 'unbefitting, uterus, obtained birth...' 'One who is born to an unbefitting mother... say, a bastard...?’ That is what Œdepus Rex proved later. The ethics of these Yavana and Shaka cultures are clearly explained in Karna-Shalya samvaada 'the debate of Karna and Shalya...' in Karna parva, Maha Bharata.

The Shakas are again the nomadic tribes inhibiting Central Asia, and they are the Scythes of Greeks and the Indo-Scythians of Ptolemy, inhibited in the Hindu Kush Range of Himalayas. Both of these are categorised under Mleccha people by Ramayana because their ethics do not conform to the Vedic stipulations of living, even though they lived together.

'The Varadas - The Bengali recension has Daradas instead. They are said to be Dards whose name is still retained in modern Durdstan along the course of the Indus, above the Himalayas, just before it descends to India...' Griffith, Ancient Geography.

It may be noticed that Ramayana did not refute any other religion, or sects, or the divergent philosophies of Hinduism itself, but it has agreed that Mleccha-s are there and there is no bother from them. Gods of Ramayana are purely Vedic, unlike the later time, rather modern or artificial literary period's poetry of Kalidasa, and their puranic deities like Kali, Uma, and Kumara etc. The literary style of Ramayana is mostly un-Paninian. It has the episodes like Rama-Jaabaali samvaada, where Sage Jaabaali being a nihilist starts preaching nihilism to Rama. When this epic could accommodate information about nihilists' preaching nihilism to Rama, it can as well afford a few lines of information about other philosophies, religions, if they were to be there. Then the present day's Unity in Diversity is not apparent and thus it is being assigned to a post-Vedic period, where Veda-s themselves are not written by some good old sages with white beards, sitting under banyan trees, at any one particular time.

Because the ancient history of Greeks came to light firstly, thereby India history is chronicled, and the epic Ramayana is known subsequently, relegate the history of Ramayana later to the Greek's invasion on India, may not be appropriate. History has its own black-ages. (VALMIKI RAMAYANA – PROBLEM OF MAPPING & DATING RAMAYANA – WIKIPEDIA .COM)

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